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COVID-19 Unemployment Fraud

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Author: Darby Wise


Date:  5/22/2020


Executive Summary
On 21 May, Agari Data published an article highlighting recent
Coronavirus (COVID-19)-related unemployment fraud activities
victimizing several states across the U.S. and targeting
Washington State in particular. Some, if not all, of the threat
actors in this campaign belong to Scattered Canary, a Nigerian
cybercriminal group behind a variety of fraud campaigns such as
social security fraud and tax fraud. In late April, Scattered Canary
actors also reportedly submitted fraudulent claims for the CARES
Act Economic Impact payments, which were intended to provide
funds for families struggling with the effects of the COVID-19


The final section of this advisory includes important recommendations for individuals
to prevent becoming victimized by these types of activities.


Threat actors utilized Gmail “dot accounts” to scale campaign operations. “Dot accounts” refer to a feature built into Gmail accounts that recognizes any variation of an email address with added periods as one singular address, i.e. googleaccount[@] would be considered the same as g.o.o.g.l.e.account[@] These can be used to mass-create accounts for submission to services such as government relief programs, because unlike Google, the websites for these programs recognize the accounts as separate, despite all communications being directed to a single account.3

To submit a successful claim, threat actors create fraudulent accounts using stolen personal data such as an individual’s name, date of birth, address, and social security number. Agari found that at least 174 fraudulent unemployment claims had been submitted in the state of Washington, and at least 17 in Massachusetts. Agari also reported that 82 fraudulent claims submitted for the CARES Act Economic Impact payments, although it did not provide the targeted locations.

Threat actors used Green Dot cards to collect the money from their fraudulent claims. Green Dot cards are a form of prepaid debit cards that can receive direct deposit payments such as those distributed by government relief programs. Agari found that the threat actors had registered all of the Green Dot accounts under the names of the individuals whose information they had stolen to create and submit the fraudulent unemployment claim.


Prevention and Mitigation
The Employment Security Department of Washington State
recommends following the practices below to prevent
becoming victimized by unemployment fraud attacks.4

Individuals there can also visit the official unemployment
website at to register
and verify a real account using a legitimate personal email
address to prevent threat actors from being able to create
a fraudulent one.

• Be wary of potentially fake or spoofed websites. Use
only the official website for each state’s employment
department; for example, in Washington State:

• Be aware that the official website for the employment
department will not ask for a payment to process
unemployment requests.

• Do not give out personal information over the phone or
online other than through a secure eServices account on
the official website for unemployment benefits.

• Immediately file a report with the state’s employment
department if there is a suspicion that someone has
applied for unemployment using stolen personal







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